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Specialized Cells in the Human Body

The human body is comprised of minuscule cells. While some of them are utilized to fabricate straightforward body parts, some have increasingly perplexing and explicit errands to perform. These are called specialized cells.

Every type of specialized cell has different work to perform. They all have special features that allow them to do there jobs.

Primarily, there are 5 major types of specialized cells.

  1. Neurons:

Neurons (also referred to as nerve cells) are specialized in communicative functions

The extensions of neurons – dendrites and axons – bring information into, and release information from the cell itself.

Some also contain structures and carry chemicals that allow them to communicate with each other, making basic thought and body functions possible.

  • Muscle cells:

Muscle cells are specialized in making the human body move.

These cells are held together in bundles, which pull together to make muscles contract.

Here are three types of muscle cells, each has specific roles:

  1. Cardiac (heart) muscle cells: They contract rhythmically and never get tired.
  2. Skeletal muscle cells: They are joined to bones. They help make the movement of bones and joints.
  3. Smooth muscle cells: These cells make thin sheets of muscle in the stomach lining, while the ones in the anus are arranged in bundles or rings.
  4. Sperm cells:
    Sperm cells are essential for human reproduction and are predominantly of a nucleus.

These cells are highly mobile as they move to locate an egg for fertilization.

The mitochondria within the sperm cell provide the energy for the mobility of these cells.

  • Red Blood cells:

Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body.

The cells lack an assortment of pieces, including a nucleus and mitochondria, that are found in other cells.

These types of cells are predominantly composed of a chemical named haemoglobin, which allows for the uptake and carrying of oxygen.

  • Leukocyte:

White blood cells or leukocytes help keep the human body safe from infection.

The primary objectives of these cells are:

  • to find and destroy microbes within the human body, and
  • to respond to and treat an infection

The cells are highly mobile and capable of pushing through capillary walls when need

Leukocytes are highly flexible and can shift shape as necessary.

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